Vaccines and Immunotherapy

Vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to particular disease. It contains certain agent that not only resembles a disease causing microorganism but it also stimulates body’s immune system to recognise the foreign agents. Vaccines are dead or inactivated organisms or purified products derived from them. whole organism vaccines  purified macromolecules as vaccines, recombinant vaccines, DNA vaccines. The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and "remembers" them. The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. In order to provide best protection, children are recommended to receive vaccinations as soon as their immune systems are sufficiently developed to respond to particular vaccines with additional "booster" shots often required to achieve "full immunity".

 

 Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of a person’s immune system to fight diseases such as cancer. This can be done in a couple of ways:

 

•          Stimulating your own immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells

 

 •          Giving you immune system components, such as man-made immune system proteins

 

 Some types of immunotherapy are also sometimes called biologic therapy or biotherapy. In the last few decades immunotherapy has become an important part of treating some types of cancer. Newer types of immune treatments are now being studied, and they’ll impact how we treat cancer in the future. Immunotherapy includes treatments that work in different ways. Some boost the body’s immune system in a very general way. Others help train the immune system to attack cancer cells specifically. Immunotherapy works better for some types of cancer than for others. It’s used by itself for some of these cancers, but for others it seems to work better when used with other types of treatment.

 

  • Advancements in vaccine development, novel tools- machinary used
  • Sub-unit vaccines: New trends
  • Vaccines for pregnant women
  • Delivery technologies
  • Recent trends in attenuated vaccines
  • Next-gen conjugate vaccines

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