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10th European Immunology Conference, will be organized around the theme “Exploring the human immune system”

Euro Immunology 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Euro Immunology 2019

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Immunology is the study of the immune system. The immune system is how all animals, including humans, protect themselves against diseases. The study of diseases caused by disorders of the immune system is clinical immunology. The disorders of the immune system fall into two broad categories:

· Immunodeficiency, in this immune system fails to provide an adequate response.

· Autoimmunity, in this immune system attacks its own host's body.

On the laboratory front, authorized Immunologists are responsible for directing diagnostic immunology services and perform a wide range of duties including clinical liaison, interpretation and validation of results, quality assurance and assay development.

 

  • Track 1-1Immunological aspects of endocrine diseases
  • Track 1-2Immunological techniques
  • Track 1-3Immunological aspects of cardiac diseases
  • Track 1-4Immune regulation
  • Track 1-5Immunological aspects of allergy and anaphylaxis
  • Track 1-6Immunology of HIV infections
  • Track 1-7Immunological aspects of renal diseases
  • Track 1-8Immune-mediated neurological syndromes

T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone marrow- or bursa-derived cells[a]) are the major cellular components of the adaptive immune response. T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity (relating to antibodies). The function of T cells and B cells is to recognize specific “non-self” antigens, during a process known as antigen presentation. Once they have identified an invader, the cells generate specific responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. B cells respond to pathogens by producing large quantities of antibodies which then neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. In response to pathogens some T cells, called T helper cells, produce cytokines that direct the immune response, while other T cells, called cytotoxic T cells, produce toxic granules that contain powerful enzymes which induce the death of pathogen-infected cells.

Following activation, B cells and T cells leave a lasting legacy of the antigens they have encountered, in the form of memory cells. Throughout the lifetime of an animal, these memory cells will remember each specific pathogen encountered, and are able to mount a strong and rapid response if the same pathogen is detected again; this is known as acquired immunity.

Cancer immunology is an area of immunology that studies relations between the immune system and cancer cells. It is a field of research that objects to discover cancer immunotherapies to treat and retard progression of the disease. The immune system is the body’s first line of defense against most diseases and infectious invaders.

These cancer cells, through subtle alterations, become immortal malignant cells but are often not changed enough to elicit an immune reaction. Understanding how the immune system works—or does not work—against cancer is a primary focus of Cancer Immunology investigators. Certain cells of the immune system, including natural killer cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and effector T cells, are capable of driving potent anti-tumour responses.

Tumor Immunobiology:
The immune system can promote the elimination of tumours, but often immune responses are modulated or suppressed by the tumour microenvironment. The Tumour microenvironment is an important aspect of cancer biology that contributes to tumour initiation, tumour progression and responses to therapy. Cells and molecules   of the immune system are a fundamental component of the tumour microenvironment. Importantly, therapeutic strategies can harness the immune system to specifically target tumour cells and this is particularly appealing owing to the possibility of inducing tumour-specific immunological memory, which might cause long-lasting regression and prevent relapse in cancer patients. The composition and characteristics of the tumour micro environment vary widely and are important in determining the anti-tumour immune response. Tumour cells often induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment, which favours the development of immuno suppressive populations of immune cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells.
 

  • Track 3-1Neutrophils and macrophages in cancer/tumor
  • Track 3-2Anti-cancer/tumor immunity
  • Track 3-3Advanced technology in cancer/tumor immunology
  • Track 3-4Tumor angiogenesis
  • Track 3-5Cancer therapy and clinical cancer research
  • Track 3-6Immune markers in cancer and tumor

Vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to particular disease. It contains certain agent that not only resembles a disease causing microorganism but it also stimulates body’s immune system to recognise the foreign agents. Vaccines are dead or inactivated organisms or purified products derived from them. whole organism vaccines  purified macromolecules as vaccines, recombinant vaccines, DNA vaccines. The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and "remembers" them. The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. In order to provide best protection, children are recommended to receive vaccinations as soon as their immune systems are sufficiently developed to respond to particular vaccines with additional "booster" shots often required to achieve "full immunity".

Vaccinology

Vaccinology describes vaccine development and how the immune system retorts to vaccines, but also includes ongoing evaluation of immunization programs, vaccine safety and effectiveness, as well as surveillance of the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases. It derives from epidemiology, immunology, infectious disease, virology, preventive medicine, paediatrics and public health.

 

 

  • Track 4-1Vaccines for pregnant women
  • Track 4-2Delivery technologies
  • Track 4-3Next-gen conjugate vaccines
  • Track 4-4Swine Flu Vaccines
  • Track 4-5H1N1 Vaccine
  • Track 4-6Pneumonia Vaccines
  • Track 4-7Recombinant Vaccines
  • Track 4-8Chickenpox Vaccine
  • Track 4-9HPV Vaccines

Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of a person’s immune system to fight diseases such as cancer. This can be done in a couple of ways:

•          Stimulating your own immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells

•          Giving you immune system components, such as man-made immune system proteins

Some types of immunotherapy are also sometimes called biologic therapy or biotherapy. In the last few decades immunotherapy has become an important part of treating some types of cancer. Newer types of immune treatments are now being studied, and they’ll impact how we treat cancer in the future.

 

Recent research in laboratories is primarily focused on infectious diseases in developing countries. Laboratory-based research may be supplemented by field-based studies of epidemiological and ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission and control.

Current immune-mediated and infectious disease includes HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria, Pneumonia, Enteric Diseases, and Autoimmune diseases. In future, immunological studies concentrate on genetic regulation of the immune response, the reciprocity of innate immune system and intestinal microbial communities, the functioning and regulation of T-cell-derived cytokines and cytokines involved in the inflammation regulation.

Recent studies shown that basic pathogenic mechanisms  lead to development of advanced diagnostic tools and  vaccines used in  prevention and control of infection and disease and the identification of new targets for antiviral and ant parasitic drugs. The battle between pathogens and the host immune defences has raged for thousands of years.

The immune system has succeeded in exploring varied approaches to control parasitic infections ranging from direct killing to developing cytokines that hamper replication.  Pathogens are encountered with developing immune evasion mechanisms that inhibit functioning of cytokines and arrest immune recognition of infected cells. Efforts carried out to interpret and signalize the opposing mechanisms will assuredly generate improvised treatment of infectious diseases ranging from AIDS and parasitic infections to sexually transmitted diseases and the common cold.

 

  • Track 6-1Host-infectious agent interaction
  • Track 6-2Infectious diseases agent
  • Track 6-3Immune responses to pathogen
  • Track 6-4Proceedings from innate and acquired immunity
  • Track 6-5Cunning strategies of infectious microbes

Immunodeficiency is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent. Immunodeficiency disorders prevent your body from adequately fighting infections and diseases. An immunodeficiency disorder also makes it easier for you to catch viruses and bacterial infections in the first place. Immunodeficiency disorders are often categorized as either congenital or acquired. A congenital, or primary, disorder is one you were born with. Acquired, or secondary, disorders are disorders you get later in life. Acquired disorders are more common than congenital disorders. Immune system includes the following organs: spleen, tonsils, bone marrow, lymph nodes.

These organs make and release lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are white blood cells classified as B cells and T cells. B and T cells fight invaders called antigens. B cells release antibodies specific to the disease your body detects. T cells kill off cells that are under attack by disease. An immunodeficiency disorder disrupts your body’s ability to defend itself against these antigens. Types of immunodeficiency disorder are Primary immunodeficiency disorders & Secondary  immunodeficiency  disorders.

Primary immunodeficiency disorders are immune disorders you are born with. Primary disorders include:

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA)

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

Secondary disorders happen when an outside source, such as a toxic chemical or infection, attacks your body. Severe burns and radiation also can cause secondary disorders.

Secondary disorders include: AIDS, cancers of the immune system such as leukemia, immune-complex diseases such as viral hepatitis, multiple myeloma.
 

Neuroimmunology, the study of the interaction between our central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and our immune system. Neuroimmunology contributes to development of new pharmacological treatments for several neurological conditions. The immune system and the nervous system maintain extensive communication, including 'hardwiring' of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves to lymphoid organs. Neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, norepinephrine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P and histamine modulate immune activity.

Neuroendocrine hormones such as corticotrophin-releasing factor, leptin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone regulate cytokine balance. The immune system modulates brain activity, including body temperature, sleep and feeding behaviour. Molecules such as the major histocompatibility complex not only direct T cells to immunogenic molecules held in its cleft but also modulate development of neuronal connections. Neurobiologists and immunologists are exploring common ideas like the synapse to understand properties such as memory that are shared in these two systems.

 

  • Track 8-1Neuro-immune interaction
  • Track 8-2Neurophysiology/Epilepsy
  • Track 8-3Autoimmune neuropathies
  • Track 8-4Neuroimmunological infectious diseases
  • Track 8-5Maternal cytokines in neurodevelopmental disorders
  • Track 8-6Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Track 8-7Neurovirology
  • Track 8-8Blood brain barrier and diseases

Reproductive immunology

Refers to a field of medicine that studies interactions (or the absence of them) between the immune system and components related to the reproductive system, such as maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus, or immunological interactions across the blood-testis barrier. The concept has been used by fertility clinics to explain the fertility problems, recurrent miscarriages and pregnancy complications observed when this state of immunological tolerance is not successfully achieved. Immunological therapy is the new up and coming method for treating many cases of previously "unexplained infertility" or recurrent miscarriage Rheumatology/ Orthopaedics

Ocular immunology

Is the destructive inflammatory diseases of the eye mediated by abnormal immunoregulatory processes. These diseases can slightly reduce vision or lead to severe vision loss. Uveitis is inflammatory diseases that affect the uvea. In addition, uveitis is used to describe any inflammatory disease that produces swelling and destroys eye tissues, including within the retina. It’s commonly associated with systemic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Many different things can cause uveitis. In some cases the cause is unknown, or in doctor language, ‘idiopathic.’ the body's immune system may be a cause.  Bruising, infections, tumors and toxins can cause eye pain, sensitivity to light, poor vision, and increased floaters.

Patients with the following diseases carry a higher risk of developing uveitis:

 ·         AIDS
 
 ·         CMV retinitis

 ·         Herpes zoster infection

 ·         Histoplasmosis
 

  • Track 9-1Immunological paradox of pregnancy
  • Track 9-2Factors involved in trophoblast invasion
  • Track 9-3Immune cells and cytokines in implantation
  • Track 9-4Mucosal immunity and sexually transmitted infections and Diseases
  • Track 9-5Immune-mediated sub-fertility and pregnancy complications
  • Track 9-6Immunogenetics in reproduction

These kinds of infections are sometimes asymptomatic. Clinically infected person will be a carrier of pathogen causing disease and infection. Such kinds of infections aren’t easily identified but only by microbial culture and molecular techniques.

An individual may develop infection signs only after a period of subclinical infection. During the course of clinical infection, weakness is the first onset symptom. Fever and drowsiness are later signs. These are the evolved responses of host system to get rid of infection. As an alternative to control or remove this pathogen, our body chooses to tolerate an infection

Fungal Immunology

There are approximately 100, 000 species of fungi and these are ubiquitous in the environment. Some form spores which we inhale on a daily basis (e.g. Aspergillus spp), and others live as human commensal organisms (e.g. Candida spp). Despite the close encounters we have with fungi, how our immune system recognises and protects us from fungal pathogens is only just beginning to be well understood of the fungi that cause disease, many are opportunistic pathogens, meaning they only cause disease under certain circumstances − such as when the immune system becomes weakened. For example, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive drugs and HIV infection all result in an impaired immune system, meaning that fungi can then more easily infect these vulnerable patients.
 

  • Track 10-1Microbiology and Immunology
  • Track 10-2Mycobacterial Infections
  • Track 10-3Clinical microbiology and Infections
  • Track 10-4Dental Infections
  • Track 10-5Immune responses to fungal pathogens
  • Track 10-6Components of Innate Immunity to Fungi
  • Track 10-7Structures and Signals that Impact Fungal Immunity
  • Track 10-8Host-Fungal Pathogen Interactions: Systems Biology and Beyond
  • Track 10-9Adaptive and Maladaptive Immunity to Fungi

Allergy involves an exaggerated response of the immune system, often to common substances such as foods or pollen. The immune system is a complex system that normally defends the body against foreign invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, while also surveying for conditions such as cancer and autoimmunity. Allergens are substances that are foreign to the body and that cause an allergic reaction. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. There are many types of allergies, Drug Allergy, Food Allergy, Insect Allergy, Latex Allergy, Mold Allergy, Pet Allergy, Pollen Allergy. Some allergies are seasonal and others are year-round. Some allergies may be life-long.

Allergies, also recognized as allergic diseases, are a numeral of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to classically harmless substances in the environment These diseases contain hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may embrace red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate circumstances.

  • Track 11-1Clinical trials to prevent and treat food allergy
  • Track 11-2immune complex disease
  • Track 11-3Epidemiology and genetics of food allergy and anaphylaxis

Diagnostics Immunology

Biological therapy so called immunotherapy is one type of treatment designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials either made by the body or manmade to improve, target and restore proper functioning of immune system. This is done in either ways. One by stimulating our own defence centers to act smarter in attacking cancer cells, and the other by providing components of immune system (man-made immune system proteins).

In past few years biotherapy has become a key for curing cancer. Recently, new procedures of immune treatment are being studied for future impact of cancer. Few of them help train the immune system to attack cancer cells specifically.

Technological novelty of Immunology

Years ago, immunologists typically spent the bulk of their time at the laboratory bench. Their research involved peering into a microscope and probably characterizing the different cells from a blood sample. And their understanding of the immune response was limited to what they could see and, based on that, what they could hypothesize.

That was then. These days, immunologists work on the tools and technologies. Instead of being confined to the visual examination of living units, a researcher able to understand the immune system using these developed tools and technologies. Scientific teams tackled studies on cells, organs and tissues, molecular pathways and animals in the effort to understand the complex network of immune system. As a result, the biological science fellows gained understanding of the immune system, from cellular level (B and T cells) to molecular pathways.

Scientists confide to new and improved technologies of advanced innovations in understanding and application of immunological process. Cellular assays measure multiple cytokine levels simultaneously. The modifications of existing assays required a brief awareness of ELISPOT assays and fluorescence cell sorting which describes the recognition of T cells for epitope activation.

 

  • Track 12-1Molecular imaging
  • Track 12-2Antigen arrays in T-cell immunology
  • Track 12-3Advanced hybridoma technology
  • Track 12-4Novel cell analyzer
  • Track 12-5Autoantigens and autoantibodies
  • Track 12-6The intersection of Inflammation, Immunity, and Cancer
  • Track 12-7Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy
  • Track 12-8Non-specific cancer immunotherapies and adjuvants
  • Track 12-9Biomarkers profiling / Advanced immunobiomarkers
  • Track 12-10Mouse model engineering
  • Track 12-11Biological clock

Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. This process involves two distinct pathways for processing of antigens from an organism's own (self) proteins or intracellular pathogens (e.g. viruses), or from phagocytosed pathogens (e.g. bacteria); subsequent presentation of these antigens on class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is dependent on which pathway is used. Both MHC class I and II are required to bind antigen before they are stably expressed on a cell surface.

MHC I antigen presentation typically (considering cross-presentation) involves the endogenous pathway of antigen processing, and MHC II antigen presentation involves the exogenous pathway of antigen processing. Cross-presentation involves parts of the exogenous and the endogenous pathways but ultimately involves the latter portion of the endogenous pathway (e.g. proteolysis of antigens for binding to MHC I molecules).

 

Haematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies are tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, lymph, and lymphatic system. Malignancies of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues include the leukemias, myeloproliferative neoplasms, plasma cell dyscrasias and dendritic cell neoplasms.

Immune system

The immune system plays a dual role against cancer: it prevents tumor cell outgrowth and also sculpts the immunogenicity of the tumor cells. Cancer cells are able to escape from the immune system by inhibiting T lymphocytes activation. New immunotherapies have been developed to target these T lymphocytes activation modulators: the immune checkpoints, defined as molecules of immune system that either turn up a signal or turn down a signal. Most of the cancers protect themselves from immune system by inhibiting activation of T cell.

  • Track 14-1Lymphoid Tumors
  • Track 14-2Immune modulators
  • Track 14-3Lymphoid Neoplasms
  • Track 14-4Acute Myeloid Leukaemias
  • Track 14-5Histiocytic Tumors
  • Track 14-6Thymoma
  • Track 14-7Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Track 14-8Multiple Myeloma

The immune system is the collection of cells, tissues and molecules that protects the body from numerous pathogenic microbes and toxins in our environment. This defense against microbes has been divided into two general types of reactions: reactions of innate immunity and reactions of adaptive immunity. Thus, innate and adaptive immunity can be thought of as two equally important aspects of the immune system. As you will see, each aspect differs with respect to how quickly it responds and for how long it responds to pathogens, its central effector cell types and its specificity for different classes of microbes. As its name suggests, the innate immune system consists of cells and proteins that are always present and ready to mobilize and fight microbes at the site of infection. It thus provides an immediate response to foreign invader.The main components of the innate immune system are 1) physical epithelial barriers, 2) phagocytic leukocytes, 3) dendritic cells, 4) a special type of lymphocyte called a natural killer (NK) cell, and 5) circulating plasma proteins.

 

  • Track 15-1The humoral components of Innate Immunity
  • Track 15-2Cell based effector mechanisms
  • Track 15-3The Cellular components of Innate Immunity
  • Track 15-4Case Studies
  • Track 15-5Innate immune evasion

Transplantation is an act of transferring cells, tissues, or organ from one site to other. Graft is implanted cell, tissue or organ. Development of the field of organ and tissue transplantation has accelerated remarkably since the human major histocompatibility complex (mhc) was discovered in 1967. Matching of donor and recipient for mhc antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance.

The roles of the different components of the immune system involved in the tolerance or rejection of grafts and in graft-versus-host disease have been clarified. These components include: antibodies, antigen presenting cells, helper and cytotoxic t cell subsets, immune cell surface molecules, signaling mechanisms and cytokines that they release.

The development of pharmacologic and biological agents that interfere with the alloimmune response and graft rejection has had a crucial role in the success of organ transplantation. Combinations of these agents work synergistically, leading to lower doses of immunosuppressive drugs and reduced toxicity. Significant numbers of successful solid organ transplants include those of the kidneys, liver, heart and lung.

  • Track 16-1Immunosuppressive agents: Current trends
  • Track 16-2Tolerance induction; xenotransplantation; islet cell transplantation
  • Track 16-3Immunocelltherapy (adoptive T cell transfer)
  • Track 16-4Immunodermatology
  • Track 16-5Anti-donor antibodies and current research

Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo.

Viruses are strongly immunogenic and induces 2 types of immune responses; humoral and cellular. The repertoire of specificities of T and B cells are formed by rearrangements and somatic mutations. T and B cells do not generally recognize the same epitopes present on the same virus. B cells see the free unaltered proteins in their native 3-D conformation whereas T cells usually see the Ag in a denatured form in conjunction with MHC molecules. The characteristics of the immune reaction to the same virus may differ in different individuals depending on their genetic constitutions.

 

  • Track 17-1Immunological characterization of viral components
  • Track 17-2Pathogenic mechanisms
  • Track 17-3Virus-based immunological diseases, including autoimmune syndromes
  • Track 17-4Research and development of viral vaccines, including field trials
  • Track 17-5Viral diagnostics
  • Track 17-6Tumor and cancer immunology with virus as the primary factor
  • Track 17-7Viral immunology methods
  • Track 17-8EBOLA, FLU, HIV etc.

An autoimmune disease develops when your immune system, which defends your body against disease, decides your healthy cells are foreign. As a result, your immune system attacks healthy cells. An autoimmune disorder may result in the destruction of body tissue, abnormal growth of an organ, Changes in organ function. Depending on the type, an autoimmune disease can affect one or many different types of body tissue. Areas often affected by autoimmune disorders include Blood vessels, Connective tissues, Endocrine glands such as the thyroid or pancreas, Joints Muscles, Red blood cells, Skin It can also cause abnormal organ growth and changes in organ function. There are as many as 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Many of them have similar symptoms, which makes them very difficult to diagnose. It’s also possible to have more than one at the same time.

Common autoimmune disorders include Addison's disease, Dermatomyositis, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Multiple sclerosis, Myasthenia gravis, Pernicious anemia, Reactive arthritis. Autoimmune diseases usually fluctuate between periods of remission (little or no symptoms) and flare-ups (worsening symptoms). Currently, treatment for autoimmune diseases focuses on relieving symptoms because there is no curative therapy.

 

  • Track 18-1Immunodeficiency diseases
  • Track 18-2Novelties in Autoimmunity
  • Track 18-3Epigenetic control of autoimmune diseases
  • Track 18-4Pathogenic and regulatory B cells in autoimmune disease
  • Track 18-5Balancing immune homeostasis with effector and regulatory T cells
  • Track 18-6Breakthrough innovations in understanding pathogenesis of disease
  • Track 18-7Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) immunofluorescence
  • Track 18-8Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) & Gastroenterology

The immune system is a complex system of the human body and understanding it is one of the most challenging topics in biology. Immunology research is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the defense of human body and to develop drugs for immunological diseases and maintain health. Recent findings in genomic and proteomic technologies have transformed the immunology research drastically. Sequencing of the human and other model organism genomes has produced increasingly large volumes of data relevant to immunology research and at the same time huge amounts of functional and clinical data are being reported in the scientific literature and stored in clinical records. Recent advances in bioinformatics or computational biology were helpful to understand and organize these large scale data and gave rise to new area that is called Computational immunology or immunoinformatics.

Computational immunology is a branch of bioinformatics and it is based on similar concepts and tools, such as sequence alignment and protein structure prediction tools. Immunomics is a discipline like genomics and proteomics. It is a science, which specifically combines Immunology with computer science, mathematics, chemistry, and biochemistry for large-scale analysis of immune system functions. It aims to study the complex protein–protein interactions and networks and allows a better understanding of immune responses and their role during normal, diseased and reconstitution states. Computational immunology is a part of immunomics, which is focused on analyzing large scale experimental data

 

  • Track 19-1Immunoreceptor signalings: Receptors and pathways
  • Track 19-2Modeling signaling pathways and transcriptional networks
  • Track 19-3Cellular communication, migration and dynamics
  • Track 19-4Systems analysis of cancer and model organisms
  • Track 19-5Human systems immunology

Pathology is a branch of medical science primarily concerning the examination of organs, tissues, and bodily fluids in order to make a diagnosis of disease. Immunopathology is a branch of biomedical science concerned with immune responses to disease, with immunodeficiency diseases, and with diseases caused by immune mechanisms. It includes the study of the pathology of an organism, organ system, or disease with respect to the immune system, immunity, and immune responses. The immune pathological reaction is caused by release of toxins and the apoptosis of infected cell.

 

The response to pathogens is composed by the complex interactions and activities of the large number of diverse cell types involved in the immune response. The innate immune response is the first line of defense and occurs soon after pathogen exposure. It is carried out by phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells, and granulocytes. The subsequent adaptive immune response includes antigen-specific defense mechanisms and may take days to develop. Cell types with critical roles in adaptive immunity are antigen-presenting cells including macrophages and dendritic cells. Antigen-dependent stimulation of various cell types including T cell subsets, B cells, and macrophages all play critical roles in host defense.
  

 

  • Track 21-1Natural killer cell immunology
  • Track 21-2Delayed-type hypersensitivity or cellular immunity
  • Track 21-3Thymus and lymphocyte immunobiology
  • Track 21-4Immunologic surveillance and tumor immunity
  • Track 21-5Immunomodulation

Inflammation is the body's attempt at self-protection; the aim being to remove harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens - and begin the healing process. In Inflammation the body's white blood cells and substances they produce protect us from infection with foreign organisms, such as bacteria and viruses. However, in some diseases, like arthritis, the body's defense system, the immune system triggers an inflammatory response when there are no foreign invaders to fight off. In these diseases, called autoimmune diseases, the body's normally protective immune system causes damage to its own tissues.

Therapies

Inflammation Therapy is a treatment for chronic disease involving a combination of lifestyle factors and medications designed to enable the immune system to fight the disease. Techniques used include heat therapy, cold therapy, electrical stimulation, traction, massage, and acupuncture. Heat increases blood flow and makes connective tissue more flexible. It temporarily decreases joint stiffness, pain, and muscle spasms. Heat also helps reduce inflammation and the buildup of fluid in tissues (edema). Heat therapy is used to treat inflammation (including various forms of arthritis), muscle spasm, and injuries such as sprains and strains. Cold therapy Applying cold may help numb tissues and relieve muscle spasms, pain due to injuries, and low back pain or inflammation that has recently developed. Cold may be applied using an ice bag, a cold pack, or fluids (such as ethyl chloride) that cool by evaporation. The therapist limits the time and amount of cold exposure to avoid damaging tissues and reducing body temperature (causing hypothermia). Cold is not applied to tissues with a reduced blood supply (for example, when the arteries are narrowed by peripheral arterial disease).