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11th World Congress and Expo on Immunology, Virology and Microbiology, will be organized around the theme “Exploring Novel Approaches in Immunology, Virology and Microbiology ”
Immunology Summit 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Immunology Summit 2019
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Immunology is the study of the immune system. The immune system is how all animals, including humans, protect themselves against diseases. The study of diseases caused by disorders of the immune system is clinical immunology. The disorders of the immune system fall into two broad categories:
· Immunodeficiency, in this immune system fails to provide an adequate response.
· Autoimmunity, in this immune system attacks its own host's body.
- Track 1-1Immunological techniques
- Track 1-2Immunological aspects of endocrine diseases
- Track 1-3Immune-mediated neurological syndromes
- Track 1-4Immunological aspects of renal diseases
- Track 1-5Immunological aspects of cardiac diseases
- Track 1-6Immunology of HIV infections
- Track 1-7Immunological aspects of allergy and anaphylaxis
- Track 1-8Immunological aspects of skin diseases
- Track 1-9Immunological aspects of infection
- Track 1-10Immune regulation
- Track 1-11Cancer vaccines:Tumor cell vaccines, antigen vaccines, antigen vaccines, vector-based vaccines
The response to pathogens is composed by the complex interactions and activities of the large number of diverse cell types involved in the immune response. The innate immune response is the first line of defense and occurs soon after pathogen exposure. It is carried out by phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells, and granulocytes. The subsequent adaptive immune response includes antigen-specific defense mechanisms and may take days to develop. Cell types with critical roles in adaptive immunity are antigen-presenting cells including macrophages and dendritic cells. Antigen-dependent stimulation of various cell types including T cell subsets, B cells, and macrophages all play critical roles in host defense.
- Track 2-1Natural killer cell immunology
- Track 2-2Thymus and lymphocyte immunobiology
- Track 2-3Resistance to intracellular microbial and viral infection
- Track 2-4Parasite immunology
- Track 2-5Nonantibody immunity
- Track 2-6Immunomodulation
- Track 2-7Immunologic surveillance and tumor immunity
- Track 2-8Immunologic deficiency states and their reconstitution
- Track 2-9Delayed-type hypersensitivity or cellular immunity
- Track 2-10Diverse immunologic roles of T cells
- Track 2-11Transplantation Immunology
The immune system is the body’s first line of defence against most diseases and unnatural invaders. Cancer Immunobiology is a branch of immunology and it studies interactions between the immune system and cancer cells. These cancer cells, through subtle alterations, become immortal malignant cells but are often not changed enough to elicit an immune reaction. Understanding how the immune system works—or does not work—against cancer is a primary focus of Cancer Immunology investigators. Certain cells of the immune system, including natural killer cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and effector T cells, are capable of driving potent anti-tumour responses.
The immune system can promote the elimination of tumours, but often immune responses are modulated or suppressed by the tumour microenvironment. The Tumour microenvironment is an important aspect of cancer biology that contributes to tumour initiation, tumour progression and responses to therapy. Cells and molecules of the immune system are a fundamental component of the tumour microenvironment. Importantly, therapeutic strategies can harness the immune system to specifically target tumour cells and this is particularly appealing owing to the possibility of inducing tumour-specific immunological memory, which might cause long-lasting regression and prevent relapse in cancer patients. The composition and characteristics of the tumour micro environment vary widely and are important in determining the anti-tumour immune response. Tumour cells often induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment, which favours the development of immuno suppressive populations of immune cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells.
- Track 3-1Neutrophils and macrophages in cancer/tumor
- Track 3-2Immune markers in cancer and tumor
- Track 3-3Anti-cancer/tumor immunity
- Track 3-4Tumor angiogenesis
- Track 3-5Engineered mouse models in cancer
- Track 3-6Advanced technology in cancer/tumor immunology
- Track 3-7Cancer therapy and clinical cancer research
The way viruses reproduce in their host cells makes them particularly susceptible to the genetic changes that help to drive their evolution. The RNA viruses are especially prone to genetic changes. In host cells there are mechanisms for correcting mistakes when DNA replicates and these kick in whenever cells divide. The genetic material inside the virus plays a major role in how rapidly a virus mutates, which in turn can impact how the illness can spread in the population.
Viruses that replicate through DNA use the same mechanisms the host cell uses to create its own DNA. Many viruses (for example, influenza A virus) can shuffle their genes with other viruses when two identical strains infect the same cell. This phenomenon is called genetic shift.
- Track 4-1Complex molecule of protein and nucleic acid
- Track 4-2Molecular evolution
- Track 4-3DNA or RNA of viruses
- Track 4-4Evolved from plasmids
- Track 4-5Protein coat: Capsid
Inflammation is the body's attempt at self-protection; the aim being to remove harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens - and begin the healing process. In Inflammation the body's white blood cells and substances they produce protect us from infection with foreign organisms, such as bacteria and viruses. However, in some diseases, like arthritis, the body's defense system, the immune system triggers an inflammatory response when there are no foreign invaders to fight off. In these diseases, called autoimmune diseases, the body's normally protective immune system causes damage to its own tissues. The body responds as if normal tissues are infected or somehow abnormal. Inflammation involves immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. The purpose of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and to initiate tissue repair. signs of acute inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function
Inflammation Therapy is a treatment for chronic disease involving a combination of lifestyle factors and medications designed to enable the immune system to fight the disease. Techniques used include heat therapy, cold therapy, electrical stimulation, traction, massage, and acupuncture. Heat increases blood flow and makes connective tissue more flexible. It temporarily decreases joint stiffness, pain, and muscle spasms. Heat also helps reduce inflammation and the buildup of fluid in tissues (edema). Heat therapy is used to treat inflammation (including various forms of arthritis), muscle spasm, and injuries such as sprains and strains. Cold therapy Applying cold may help numb tissues and relieve muscle spasms, pain due to injuries, and low back pain or inflammation that has recently developed. Cold may be applied using an ice bag, a cold pack, or fluids (such as ethyl chloride) that cool by evaporation. The therapist limits the time and amount of cold exposure to avoid damaging tissues and reducing body temperature (causing hypothermia). Cold is not applied to tissues with a reduced blood supply (for example, when the arteries are narrowed by peripheral arterial disease).
Immunology governs the body defence system against invading foreign particles and its associated disorders. The proper functioning of an immune system includes, detecting the pathogens and disease drivers that invades the host system and differentiate them from self-particles. These annexing microbes cause contagious diseases for which our body’s immune system contains cellular components which recognize their presence and destroys them leaving an immunological memory.
Basic immune system in most of the species is categorized into humoral and cell-mediated immunity. In humans, there are specialized barriers called blood-brain barrier and more which protects the brain from invading pathogens. Recent advancements in this cellular immunology reveal the information of signaling between the invading pathogen and host cells.
An autoimmune disease develops when your immune system, which defends your body against disease, decides your healthy cells are foreign. As a result, your immune system attacks healthy cells. An autoimmune disorder may result in the destruction of body tissue, abnormal growth of an organ, Changes in organ function. Depending on the type, an autoimmune disease can affect one or many different types of body tissue. Areas often affected by autoimmune disorders include Blood vessels, Connective tissues, Endocrine glands such as the thyroid or pancreas, Joints Muscles, Red blood cells, Skin It can also cause abnormal organ growth and changes in organ function. There are as many as 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Many of them have similar symptoms, which makes them very difficult to diagnose. It’s also possible to have more than one at the same time. Common autoimmune disorders include Addison's disease, Dermatomyositis, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Multiple sclerosis, Myasthenia gravis, Pernicious anemia, Reactive arthritis. Autoimmune diseases usually fluctuate between periods of remission (little or no symptoms) and flare-ups (worsening symptoms). Currently, treatment for autoimmune diseases focuses on relieving symptoms because there is no curative therapy.
- Track 7-1Cancer and Autoimmunity
- Track 7-2Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) immunofluorescence
- Track 7-3Balancing immune homeostasis with effector and regulatory T cells
- Track 7-4Epigenetic control of autoimmune diseases
- Track 7-5Breakthrough innovations in understanding pathogenesis of disease
- Track 7-6Novelties in Autoimmunity
Molecular immunology deals with immune responses at cellular and molecular level. Molecular immunology has been evolved for better understanding of the sub-cellular immune responses for prevention and treatment of immune related disorders and immune deficient diseases. Journal of molecular immunology focuses on the invitro and invivo immunological responses of the host. Molecular Immunology focuses on the areas such as immunological disorders, invitro and invivo immunological host responses, humoral responses, immunotherapies for treatment of cancer, treatment of autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto’s disease, myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Treatment of Immune deficiencies such as hypersensitivities, chronic granulomatous disease, diagnostic immunology research aspects, allografts, etc..
Host immune system is an important and sophisticated system, maintaining the balance of host response to "foreign" antigens and ignorance to the normal-self. To fulfill this achievement the system manipulates a cell-cell interaction through appropriate interactions between cell-surface receptors and cell-surface ligands, or cell-secreted soluble effector molecules to their ligands/receptors/counter-receptors on the cell surface, triggering further downstream signaling for response effects. T cells and NK cells are important components of the immune system for defending the infections and malignancies and maintaining the proper response against over-reaction to the host. Receptors on the surface of T cells and NK cells include a number of important protein molecules, for example, T cell receptor (TCR), co-receptor CD8 or CD4, co-stimulator CD28, CTLA4, KIR, CD94/NKG2, LILR (ILT/LIR/CD85), Ly49, and so forth.
Transplantation is an act of transferring cells, tissues, or organ from one site to other. Graft is implanted cell, tissue or organ. Development of the field of organ and tissue transplantation has accelerated remarkably since the human major histocompatibility complex (mhc) was discovered in 1967. Matching of donor and recipient for mhc antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. The roles of the different components of the immune system involved in the tolerance or rejection of grafts and in graft-versus-host disease have been clarified. These components include: antibodies, antigen presenting cells, helper and cytotoxic t cell subsets, immune cell surface molecules, signaling mechanisms and cytokines that they release. The development of pharmacologic and biological agents that interfere with the alloimmune response and graft rejection has had a crucial role in the success of organ transplantation. Combinations of these agents work synergistically, leading to lower doses of immunosuppressive drugs and reduced toxicity. Significant numbers of successful solid organ transplants include those of the kidneys, liver, heart and lung.
- Track 9-1Immunosuppressive agents: Current trends
- Track 9-2Tolerance induction; xenotransplantation; islet cell transplantation
- Track 9-3Anti-donor antibodies and current research
- Track 9-4Potential xenotransplantation
- Track 9-5Immunocelltherapy (adoptive T cell transfer)
- Track 9-6Immunodermatology
- Track 9-7Biological clock
Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Many infectious diseases, such as measles and chickenpox, can be prevented by vaccines. Frequent and thorough hand-washing also helps protect you from infectious diseases.
There are four main kinds of germs:
Bacteria - one-celled germs that multiply quickly and may release chemicals which can make you sick
Viruses - capsules that contain genetic material, and use your own cells to multiply
Fungi - primitive plants, like mushrooms or mildew
- Track 10-1Current research and future research strategies
- Track 10-2Global dengue: Challenges and promises
- Track 10-3Ebola : Overview and therapeutics
Paleovirology is the term used to describe the study of viruses which cannot leave behind physical fossils. Virion structural protein derived from the amino-terminal domain of the Gag polyprotein. Phylogenetic analysis of Endogenous Viral Elements (EVEs) across multiple host species exhibit novel information about the evolution of diverse virus groups. EVEs have been adopted as inhibitors of viral infection.Viral infection occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and virions attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Viral infection is usually detected by clinical monitoring, for instance severe muscle and joint pains preceding fever, skin rash. Viruses are Intracellular obligate parasites that they cannot replicate their genes without the help of a living cell. Certain proteins on the virus particle must fit particular receptor sites on the particular host cell surface. Host cell provides the energy & system for the synthesis of viral proteins & nucleic acids.
Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo.
Viruses are strongly immunogenic and induces 2 types of immune responses; humoral and cellular. The repertoire of specificities of T and B cells are formed by rearrangements and somatic mutations. T and B cells do not generally recognize the same epitopes present on the same virus. B cells see the free unaltered proteins in their native 3-D conformation whereas T cells usually see the Ag in a denatured form in conjunction with MHC molecules. The characteristics of the immune reaction to the same virus may differ in different individuals depending on their genetic constitutions.
- Track 12-1Human and animal viral immunology
- Track 12-2Immunological characterization of viral components
- Track 12-3Pathogenic mechanisms
- Track 12-4Virus-based immunological diseases, including autoimmune syndromes
- Track 12-5Research and development of viral vaccines, including field trials
- Track 12-6Viral diagnostics
- Track 12-7Tumor and cancer immunology with virus as the primary factor
- Track 12-8Viral immunology methods
- Track 12-9EBOLA, FLU, HIV etc.
A child suffering from allergies or other problems with his immune system is referred as pediatric immunology. Child’s immune system fights against infections. If the child has allergies, their immune system wrongly reacts to things that are usually harmless. Pet dander, pollen, dust, mold spores, insect stings, food, and medications are examples of such things. This reaction may cause their body to respond with health problems such as asthma, hay fever, hives, eczema (a rash), or a very severe and unusual reaction called anaphylaxis. Sometimes, if your child’s immune system is not working right, he may suffer from frequent, severe, and/or uncommon infections. Examples of such infections are sinusitis (inflammation of one or more of the sinuses), pneumonia (infection of the lung), thrush (a fungus infection in the mouth), and abscesses (collections of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue) that keep coming back.
- Track 13-1Pulmonology
- Track 13-2Severe reactions to foods, insect stings, and medications (anaphylaxis)
- Track 13-3Hives (urticaria, welts)
- Track 13-4Eczema (atopic dermatitis)
- Track 13-5Sinusitis and Frequent sinusitis, pneumonia, or diarrhea
- Track 13-6Asthma
- Track 13-7Hay fever (allergic rhinitis
- Track 13-8Pediatric Allergies
- Track 13-9Severe, unusual infections
Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of a person’s immune system to fight diseases such as cancer. This can be done in a couple of ways:
• Stimulating your own immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells
• Giving you immune system components, such as man-made immune system proteins
Some types of immunotherapy are also sometimes called biologic therapy or biotherapy. In the last few decades immunotherapy has become an important part of treating some types of cancer. Newer types of immune treatments are now being studied, and they’ll impact how we treat cancer in the future. Immunotherapy includes treatments that work in different ways. Some boost the body’s immune system in a very general way. Others help train the immune system to attack cancer cells specifically.
Cancer immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to treat cancer. The main types of immunotherapy now being used to treat cancer include:
• Monoclonal antibodies: these are man-made versions of immune system proteins. Antibodies can be very useful in treating cancer because they can be designed to attack a very specific part of a cancer cell.
• Immune checkpoint inhibitors: these drugs basically take the ‘brakes’ off the immune system, which helps it recognize and attack cancer cells.
• Cancer vaccines: vaccines are substances put into the body to start an immune response against certain diseases. We usually think of them as being given to healthy people to help prevent infections. But some vaccines can help prevent or treat cancer.
• Other, non-specific immunotherapies: these treatments boost the immune system in a general way, but this can still help the immune system attack cancer cells.
Immunotherapy drugs are now used to treat many different types of cancer. For more information about immunotherapy as a treatment for a specific cancer, please see our information on that type of cancer.
- Track 14-1Insights for Immunotherapy
- Track 14-2The intersection of Inflammation, Immunity, and Cancer
- Track 14-3Non-specific cancer immunotherapies and adjuvants
- Track 14-4Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy
- Track 14-5mor-infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2 (IL-2)
- Track 14-6Immunotherapy for Inflammation
- Track 14-7Cancer vaccines:Tumor cell vaccines, antigen vaccines, antigen vaccines, vector-based vaccines
Immunology is the study of the immune system, which is responsible for protecting the body from foreign cells such as viruses, bacteria and parasites. Immune system cells called T and B lymphocytes identify and destroy these invaders. The lymphocytes usually recognize and ignore the body’s own tissue (a condition called immunological self-tolerance), but certain autoimmune disorders trigger a malfunction in the immune response causing an attack on the body’s own cells due to a loss of immune tolerance.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks insulin-producing islet cells in the pancreas. This attack begins years before type 1 diabetes becomes evident, so by the time someone is diagnosed, extensive damage has already been done and the ability to produce insulin is lost.
- Track 15-1Innate immunity and diabetes
- Track 15-2Biomarkers for disease staging
- Track 15-3Beta cell biology and immune interactions
- Track 15-4Experimental diabetes–Immune responses and therapy
- Track 15-5Immunology of autoantigen-specific strategies and novel agents
- Track 15-6Environmental triggers impacting disease pathogenesis
- Track 15-7immunometabolism
Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the processes of replication, transcription, translation, and cell function. The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being oversimplified, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field. The picture has been revised in light of emerging novel roles for RNA
- Track 16-1Molecular genetics
- Track 16-2Macromolecule blotting and probing
- Track 16-3Molecular cloning
- Track 16-4Phylogenetics
- Track 16-5Polymerase chain reaction
Immunological tolerance is the failure to mount an immune response to an antigen. It can be: Natural or "self" tolerance. This is the failure (a good thing) to attack the body's own proteins and other antigens. If the immune system should respond to "self", an autoimmune disease may result. Natural or "self" tolerance: Induced tolerance: This is tolerance to external antigens that has been created by deliberately manipulating the immune system
- Track 17-1Immune homeostasis: Immunity versus tolerance
- Track 17-2Immune modulation of tumors
- Track 17-3Central nervous system-targeted autoimmunity
- Track 17-4Tissue-specific autoimmunity
- Track 17-5Tissue-specific autoimmunity
- Track 17-6B cell differentiation pathways and disease susceptibility
- Track 17-7Transplant rejection and engraftment
- Track 17-8Next generation immune-based therapies
Vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to particular disease. It contains certain agent that not only resembles a disease causing microorganism but it also stimulates body’s immune system to recognise the foreign agents. Vaccines are dead or inactivated organisms or purified products derived from them. whole organism vaccines purified macromolecules as vaccines, recombinant vaccines, DNA vaccines. The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and "remembers" them. The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. In order to provide best protection, children are recommended to receive vaccinations as soon as their immune systems are sufficiently developed to respond to particular vaccines with additional "booster" shots often required to achieve "full immunity".
Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of a person’s immune system to fight diseases such as cancer. This can be done in a couple of ways:
• Stimulating your own immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells
• Giving you immune system components, such as man-made immune system proteins
Some types of immunotherapy are also sometimes called biologic therapy or biotherapy. In the last few decades immunotherapy has become an important part of treating some types of cancer. Newer types of immune treatments are now being studied, and they’ll impact how we treat cancer in the future. Immunotherapy includes treatments that work in different ways. Some boost the body’s immune system in a very general way. Others help train the immune system to attack cancer cells specifically. Immunotherapy works better for some types of cancer than for others. It’s used by itself for some of these cancers, but for others it seems to work better when used with other types of treatment.
- Track 18-1Advancements in vaccine development, novel tools- machinary used
- Track 18-2Sub-unit vaccines: New trends
- Track 18-3Vaccines for pregnant women
- Track 18-4Delivery technologies
- Track 18-5Recent trends in attenuated vaccines
- Track 18-6Next-gen conjugate vaccines
Immunological techniques include both experimental methods to study the immune system and methods to generate or use immunological reagents as experimental tools. The most common immunological methods relate to the production and use of antibodies to detect specific proteins in biological samples. Various laboratory techniques exist that rely on the use of antibodies to visualize components of microorganisms or other cell types and to distinguish one cell or organism type from another. Immunologic techniques are used for: Quantitating and detecting antibodies and/or antigens, Purifying immunoglobulins, lymphokines and other molecules of the immune system, Isolating antigens and other substances important in immunological processes, Labelling antigens and antibodies, Localizing antigens and/or antibodies in tissues and cells, Detecting, and fractionating immunocompetent cells, Assaying for cellular immunity, Documenting cell-cell interactions, Initiating immunity and unresponsiveness, Transplanting tissues, Studying items closely related to immunity such as complement, reticuloendothelial system and others, Molecular techniques for studying immune cells and their receptors, Imaging of the immune system, Methods for production or their fragments in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
Control of microbial growth, as used here, means to inhibit or prevent growth of microorganisms. This control is achieved in two basic ways: (1) by killing microorganisms or (2) by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. Control of growth usually involves the use of physical or chemical agents which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms. Agents which kill cells are called cidal agents; agents which inhibit the growth of cells (without killing them) are referred to as static agents. Thus, the term bactericidal refers to killing bacteria, and bacteriostatic refers to inhibiting the growth of bacterial cells. A bactericide kills bacteria, a fungicide kills fungi, and so on. In microbiology, sterilization refers to the complete destruction or elimination of all viable organisms in or on a substance being sterilized. There are no degrees of sterilization: an object or substance is either sterile or not. Sterilization procedures involve the use of heat, radiation or chemicals, or physical removal of cells.
Viral epidemiology is the branch of medical science that deals with the frequency and spread of viruses in populations over time. It is used to break the chain of infection in populations during outbreaks of viral diseases. Host, virus and environmental factors are monitored to determine the dynamics of viral infections, the ultimate goal of which is to devise intervention strategies. Transmission of viruses can be vertical, means from mother to child (or) horizontal, means from person to person. The rate of transmission of viral infections depends on factors that include population density, the number of susceptible individuals, the quality of healthcare and the weather.
- Track 20-1Genomic sequences
- Track 20-2Polymerase chain reaction(PCR)
- Track 20-3Zoonotic Transmission
Immunodeficiency is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent. Immunodeficiency disorders prevent your body from adequately fighting infections and diseases. An immunodeficiency disorder also makes it easier for you to catch viruses and bacterial infections in the first place. Immunodeficiency disorders are often categorized as either congenital or acquired. A congenital, or primary, disorder is one you were born with. Acquired, or secondary, disorders are disorders you get later in life. Acquired disorders are more common than congenital disorders. Immune system includes the following organs: spleen, tonsils, bone marrow, lymph nodes. These organs make and release lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are white blood cells classified as B cells and T cells. B and T cells fight invaders called antigens. B cells release antibodies specific to the disease your body detects. T cells kill off cells that are under attack by disease. An immunodeficiency disorder disrupts your body’s ability to defend itself against these antigens. Types of immunodeficiency disorder are Primary immunodeficiency disorders & Secondary immunodeficiency disorders.
Primary immunodeficiency disorders are immune disorders you are born with. Primary disorders include:
X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA)
· Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)
· Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
Secondary disorders happen when an outside source, such as a toxic chemical or infection, attacks your body. Severe burns and radiation also can cause secondary disorders.
Secondary disorders include: AIDS, cancers of the immune system such as leukemia, immune-complex diseases such as viral hepatitis, multiple myeloma.
A pathogen is a microorganism that is able to cause disease in a plant, animal or insect. Pathogenicity is the ability to produce disease in a host organism. Microbes express their pathogenicity by means of their virulence, a term which refers to the degree of pathogenicity of the microbe. Hence, the determinants of virulence of a pathogen are any of its genetic or biochemical or structural features that enable it to produce disease in a host. The relationship between a host and a pathogen is dynamic, since each modifies the activities and functions of the other. The outcome of such a relationship depends on the virulence of the pathogen and the relative degree of resistance or susceptibility of the host, due mainly to the effectiveness of the host defense mechanisms. Bacterial infectivity results from a disturbance in the balance between bacterial virulence and host resistance. The “objective” of bacteria is to multiply rather than to cause disease; it is in the best interest of the bacteria not to kill the host. Numerous physical and chemical attributes of the host protect against bacterial infection. These defenses include the antibacterial factors in secretions covering mucosal surfaces and rapid rate of replacement of skin and mucosal epithelial cells. Once the surface of the body is penetrated, bacteria encounter an environment virtually devoid of free iron needed for growth, which requires many of them to scavenge for this essential element. Bacteria invading tissues encounter phagocytic cells that recognize them as foreign, and through a complex signaling mechanism involving interleukins, eicosanoids, and complement, mediate an inflammatory response in which many lymphoid cells participate.
- Track 22-1Immune Response and Bacterial Infections
- Track 22-2Bacterial Toxins and Immnology
- Track 22-3Intracellular Bacterial Vaccine Vectors
Viruses are only able to replicate themselves by confiscating the reproductive apparatus of cells and making them reproduce the virus's genetic structure instead. There are different life cycle process like viral entry, viral replication, viral shedding, and viral latency. Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology in which viruses convert into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases. There are different branches in Virotherapy like Oncolytic Virotherapy, viral gene therapy, viral immunotherapy.
Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins, are large Y-shaped proteins which function to identify and help remove foreign antigens or targets such as viruses and bacteria. Antibodies are produced by specialized white blood cells called B lymphocytes (or B cells). When an antigen binds to the B-cell surface, it stimulates the B cell to divide and mature into a group of identical cells called a clone. The mature B cells, called plasma cells, secrete millions of antibodies into the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Every different antibody recognizes a specific foreign antigen. This is because the two tips of its “Y” are specific to each antigen, allowing different antibodies to bind to different foreign antigens.Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen. Antigens are large molecules, usually proteins, on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, bacteria, and some non-living substances such as toxins, chemicals, and foreign particles. Any substance capable of triggering an immune response is called an antigen. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the harmful agent, called an antigen, via the variable region.
Antibody engineering has become a well-developed discipline, encompassing discovery methods, production strategies, and modification techniques that have brought forth clinically investigated and marketed therapeutics. The realization of the long-standing goal of production of fully human monoclonal antibodies has focused intensive research on the clinical employment of this potent drug category.
- Track 24-1Lymphocytes: Research and novel strategies
- Track 24-2Antibodies and neuroscience
- Track 24-3Monoclonal antibodies and organ cancers
- Track 24-4Antibodies and infectious diseases
- Track 24-5Antibody biology & engineering
- Track 24-6Antibodies as drugs: Immunological scaffolds as therapeutics
- Track 24-7Antibody-targeted fusion proteins for cancer therapy
- Track 24-8Genetics and epigenetics of the immune system
- Track 24-9Genomic, metabolomic and proteomic advances in cancer immunotherapy
Neuroimmunology, the study of the interaction between our central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and our immune system. Neuroimmunology contributes to development of new pharmacological treatments for several neurological conditions. The immune system and the nervous system maintain extensive communication, including 'hardwiring' of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves to lymphoid organs. Neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, norepinephrine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P and histamine modulate immune activity. Neuroendocrine hormones such as corticotrophin-releasing factor, leptin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone regulate cytokine balance. The immune system modulates brain activity, including body temperature, sleep and feeding behaviour. Molecules such as the major histocompatibility complex not only direct T cells to immunogenic molecules held in its cleft but also modulate development of neuronal connections. Neurobiologists and immunologists are exploring common ideas like the synapse to understand properties such as memory that are shared in these two systems.
- Track 25-1Neuro-immune interaction
- Track 25-2Neurophysiology/Epilepsy
- Track 25-3Autoimmune neuropathies
- Track 25-4Neuroimmunological infectious diseases
- Track 25-5Maternal cytokines in neurodevelopmental disorders
- Track 25-6Multiple Sclerosis and Neurological disorders
- Track 25-7Neurodegenerative diseases
- Track 25-8Blood brain barrier and diseases
- Track 25-9Neurovirology
Antibiotics are the drug used to treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics have no effect on viral infections. Originally, an antibiotic was a substance produced by one microorganism that selectively inhibits the growth of another. Synthetic antibiotics, usually chemically related to natural antibiotics, have since been produced that accomplish comparable tasks. Several antibiotics are also effective against fungi and protozoans, and some are toxic to humans and animals, even when given in therapeutic dosage.Antibiotic must reach the binding site of the microbe to interfere with the life cycle & must occupy “sufficient” number of active sites. Antibiotic must reside on the active site for “sufficient” time. Antibiotics are not contact poisons. Antibacterial antibiotics target the bacterial cell wall or the cell membrane, or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes.
Current research in antibiotic resistance can be divided into several areas of focus.
• Novel antibacterial drug discoverantibacterial drug discovery
• Investigating antibiotic use and determining minimal-risk policies
• Nutrition as a method of controlling bacterial infections
• Economic implications of bacterial resistance
• Compilation of information on bacterial resistance
The immune system is a complex system of the human body and understanding it is one of the most challenging topics in biology. Immunology research is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the defense of human body and to develop drugs for immunological diseases and maintain health. Recent findings in genomic and proteomic technologies have transformed the immunology research drastically. Sequencing of the human and other model organism genomes has produced increasingly large volumes of data relevant to immunology research and at the same time huge amounts of functional and clinical data are being reported in the scientific literature and stored in clinical records. Recent advances in bioinformatics or computational biology were helpful to understand and organize these large scale data and gave rise to new area that is called Computational immunology or immunoinformatics.
Computational immunology is a branch of bioinformatics and it is based on similar concepts and tools, such as sequence alignment and protein structure prediction tools. Immunomics is a discipline like genomics and proteomics. It is a science, which specifically combines Immunology with computer science, mathematics, chemistry, and biochemistry for large-scale analysis of immune system functions. It aims to study the complex protein–protein interactions and networks and allows a better understanding of immune responses and their role during normal, diseased and reconstitution states. Computational immunology is a part of immunomics, which is focused on analyzing large scale experimental data
- Track 27-1Immunoreceptor signalings: Receptors and pathways
- Track 27-2Modeling signaling pathways and transcriptional networks
- Track 27-3Cellular communication, migration and dynamics
- Track 27-4Systems analysis of cancer and model organisms
- Track 27-5Human systems immunology
Cytokines are a large group of proteins that are secreted by specific cells of immune system. These cytokine molecules aid cell to cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of cells towards sites of inflammation, infection and trauma. Cytokines are released by cells into the circulation or directly into tissue. The cytokines locate target immune cells and interact with receptors on the target immune cells by binding to them. The interaction triggers or stimulates specific responses by the target cells. There are different types of cytokines, including chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines and tumor necrosis factor. They can act alone, work together or work against each other, but ultimately the role of cytokines is to help regulate the immune response. Cytokines are involved in many aspects of inflammation and immunity. Another level of research is using cytokines to explore the immune system and tease apart the interplay of the various cytokines. Here again, confusion reigns. Whether a particular cytokine stimulates or inhibits the growth of a particular cell type.
- Track 28-1Cytokines, cancer immunotherapy
- Track 28-2Tumorigenesis and clinical medicine
- Track 28-3Advances in innate and adaptive Immunity
- Track 28-4Targeting cytokines & chemokines for therapeutic interventions
- Track 28-5Metabolism, cytokines and immunity
- Track 28-6Cell growth and differentiation
- Track 28-7Embryonic development
- Track 28-8Signal transduction
- Track 28-9Cytokines and the impact of the microbiome
- Track 28-10Diagnostic and clinical applications
Immunotoxicology is the study of immune dysfunction. Immunotoxicology is due to exposure of an organism to foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism. Immune dysfunction may result in the reduction of the activity of the immune system. Immunotoxic substances, such as chemicals, pesticides, or drugs, can have adverse effects on the functioning of the immune system. The known effects include increased susceptibility to infections or tumors as a result of humoral and/or cellular immunity being compromised (immunosuppression), autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and development of allergies
- Track 29-1Computational methods for immunogenicity evaluation
- Track 29-2Immunogenicity assessment for peptide therapeutics
- Track 29-3Immunogenicity assessment for biosimilars
- Track 29-4Immunotoxicity evaluation of novel drug candidates
- Track 29-5Protein aggregation, biological activity & immunogenicity
Allergy involves an exaggerated response of the immune system, often to common substances such as foods or pollen. The immune system is a complex system that normally defends the body against foreign invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, while also surveying for conditions such as cancer and autoimmunity. Allergens are substances that are foreign to the body and that cause an allergic reaction. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. There are many types of allergies, Drug Allergy, Food Allergy, Insect Allergy, Latex Allergy, Mold Allergy, Pet Allergy, Pollen Allergy. Some allergies are seasonal and others are year-round. Some allergies may be life-long.
Allergies, also recognized as allergic diseases, are a numeral of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to classically harmless substances in the environment These diseases contain hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may embrace red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate circumstances.
Asthma is a chronic disease involving the airways in the lungs. These airways, or bronchial tubes, allow air to come in and out of the lungs. A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in those with asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea. Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. Sputum may be produced from the lung by coughing but is often hard to bring up.
- Track 30-1Clinical trials to prevent and treat food allergy
- Track 30-2Epidemiology and genetics of food allergy and anaphylaxis
- Track 30-3Immediate hypersensitivity
- Track 30-4Immune complex disease
- Track 30-5Cytotoxic or antibody-dependent hypersensitivity
The immune system is the collection of cells, tissues and molecules that protects the body from numerous pathogenic microbes and toxins in our environment. This defense against microbes has been divided into two general types of reactions: reactions of innate immunity and reactions of adaptive immunity. Thus, innate and adaptive immunity can be thought of as two equally important aspects of the immune system. As you will see, each aspect differs with respect to how quickly it responds and for how long it responds to pathogens, its central effector cell types and its specificity for different classes of microbes. As its name suggests, the innate immune system consists of cells and proteins that are always present and ready to mobilize and fight microbes at the site of infection. It thus provides an immediate response to foreign invader.The main components of the innate immune system are 1) physical epithelial barriers, 2) phagocytic leukocytes, 3) dendritic cells, 4) a special type of lymphocyte called a natural killer (NK) cell, and 5) circulating plasma proteins. Innate immune responses are not specific to a particular pathogen in the way that the adaptive immune responses are. They depend on a group of proteins and phagocytic cells that recognize conserved features of pathogens and become quickly activated to help destroy invaders.
- Track 31-1The humoral components of Innate Immunity
- Track 31-2Cell based effector mechanisms
- Track 31-3The Cellular components of Innate Immunity
- Track 31-4Case Studies
- Track 31-5Innate immune evasion
Immunocytochemistry is a technique used to assess the presence of a specific protein or antigen in cells (cultured cells, cell suspensions) by use of a specific antibody, which binds to it, thereby allowing visualization and examination under a microscope. It is a valuable tool for the determination of cellular contents from individual cells. Samples that can be analyzed include blood smears, aspirates, swabs, cultured cells, cell suspensions, and cytospin. Each sample is treated differently, yet all the methods are interchangeable. There is no one way to prepare these types of cell samples for immunocytochemical analysis.
While the term immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often used interchangeably with Immunocytochemistry (ICC), significant differences exist between IHC and ICC in the nature of the biological sample that is analyzed. With IHC, tissues are removed from the patient or animal and either frozen or chemically preserved and embedded in paraffin. Sections as thin as 4μm are sliced from frozen or paraffin-embedded tissue and mounted onto slides in preparation for antibody-based staining. In this way, researchers can look at the localization of cellular components while maintaining the original architecture of the surrounding tissue, as shown in the right panel below.
Immunobiology is the branch of biology dealing with immunologic effects on infectious diseases, growth and development, recognition phenomena, hypersensitivity, heridity, aging, cancer and transplantation.
Most parasites, by the nature of their continuous contact with the immune system, generate a prolific immune response. Unfortunately, much of this response is not protective, and some is harmful. Protective immunity in some infections is due to a combination of humoral and cellular immunity; in this circumstance parasites are coated with antibody which makes them susceptible to direct cytotoxicity by macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils. Antibody alone is protective against some other infections. Nonspecific and genetic factors are clearly important but are still undefined participants in the host response. The immune response may be pathogenic by inducing hypersensitivity, immunologically mediated fibrosis, or circulating immune complexes. Additionally, Parasites have evolved unique ways of protecting themselves from the immune system, including altering their antigenic coat and inducing immunosuppression. Attempts to isolate "host-protective" antigens in parasitic infections may lead to effective vaccine development.
All living organisms are continuously exposed to substances that are capable of causing them harm. Most organisms protect themselves against such substances in more than one way --- with physical barriers, for example, or with chemicals that repel or kill invaders. Animals with backbones, called vertebrates, have these types of general protective mechanisms, but they also have a more advanced protective system called the immune system. The immune system is a complex network of organs containing cells that recognize foreign substances in the body and destroy them. It protects vertebrates against pathogens, or infectious agents, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other parasites. The human immune system is the most complex .Although there are many potentially harmful pathogens, no pathogen can invade or attack all organisms because a pathogen's ability to cause harm requires a susceptible victim, and not all organisms are susceptible to the same pathogens. For instance, the virus that causes AIDS in humans does not infect animals such as dogs, cats, and mice. Similarly, humans are not susceptible to the viruses that cause canine distemper, feline leukemia, and mouse pox.
Immunopathology is a branch of biomedical science concerned with immune responses to disease, with immunodeficiency diseases, and with diseases caused by immune mechanisms. It includes the study of the pathology of an organism, organ system, or disease with respect to the immune system, immunity, and immune responses. The immunopathalogical reaction is caused by release of toxins and the apoptosis of infected cell.
Immunogenicity-The property enabling a substance to provoke an immune response, or the degree to which a substance possesses this property. The ability of an antigen to elicit immune responses is called immunogenicity, which can be humoral and/or cell-mediated immune responses. Proteins are more immunogenic & T-cells are required to drive immunogenicity. Protein therapeutics of all types can potentially elicit immune responses when administered to humans. Understanding immunogenicity is a key challenge in the development of therapeutics with many biologics inducing undesirable immune responses directed towards the therapeutic resulting in reduced efficacy, anaphylaxis and occasionally life threatening autoimmunity.
Immunotoxicology is the study of immune dysfunction. Immunotoxicology is due to exposure of an organism to foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism. Immune dysfunction may result in the reduction of the activity of the immune system.