Day 1 :
- Immunotherapy | Immune System | Cellular and molecular immunology | Transplantation Immunology
University of Crete, Greece
Dr Bakela Katerina has completed her PhD at the age of 30 years (2015) from Biology Department, University of Crete and currently is employed as a postdoctoral researcher in Immunobiology Lab, University of Crete. She is the recipient of 2 postdoctoral fellowships, from State Scholarships Foundation (IKY)-SIEMENS and EU Partnership Agreement (PA) 2014-2020 for young researchers. Dr Bakela has supervised over 10 postgraduate and 25 undergraduate thesis and has published 6 papers in reputed journals. Furthermore, she has presented her research in several global, European and Greek meetings and conferences.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used in murine sepsis models, which are largely associated with immunosuppression (incretion of MDSCs cells and Tregs, imbalance of inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines) and collapse of the immune system. After adapting the LPS treatment to the needs of BALB/c mice, the present study explored the protective role of Micrococcus luteus peptidoglycan (PG) pre-activated vaccine-on chip in endotoxemia. The established protocol consisted of five daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2mg/gr LPS. Such protocol allowed longer survival, necessary in the prospect of the therapeutic treatment application. A novel immunotherapy technology, the so-called vaccine-on-chip consists of a 3-dimentional laser micro-texture Si-scaffold loaded with BALB/c mouse macrophages and activated in vitro with 1μg/ml PG, which exert its action upon subcutaneous implantation. The LPS treatment significantly decreased CD4+ and MHC-II+ cells, while increasing myeloid-derived suppressor (MDSCs) and CD25+ cells. These results were accompanied by increased arginase-1 activity in spleen cell lysates and production of IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-18, while acquiring severe sepsis phenotype as defined by the murine sepsis scoring. The in vivo application of PG pre-activated vaccine-on chip significantly increased the percentage of CD19+ cells, while decreasing the percentage of Gr1+, CD25+ cells and arginase-1 activity in the spleen of LPS-treated animals, as well as IL-6 and TNF-a in the serum, allowing survival to all animals tested and rescuing the severity of sepsis phenotype. In conclusion, these results reveal a novel immunotherapy technology based on PG pre-activated micro-texture Si-scaffolds in LPS endotoxemia, supporting thus its potential use in the treatment of septic patients.
Aristide Le Dantec Hospital, Senegal
Dr. El Hadji Seydou Mbaye was born in 1978 in Kaolack a region of Senegal. During 2008-2013, he earned his PhD in Biology and Human Pathologies with the collaboration of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) /WHO, Lyon (France); 2006-2007 : Master of Life and Health, Specialty Biology of microorganisms, Virology in Louis Pasteur University of Strasbourg (France); 2005-2006 : Master of Life and Health, option of Immuno-physiopathology in Louis Pasteur University of Strasbourg (France); 2004-2005 : License of Biochemistry in Louis Pasteur University of Strasbourg (France); 2002-2004 : General Degree in Sciences and Technologies in University of METZ (France).
He was certified by the Federation International of Gynecology Obstetrics (FIGO), the Accreditation Council of Oncology in Europe (ACOE, www.acoe.be), the Institute Catalan of Oncology (ICO) for cervical cancer prevention (Grade 10/10) in support of Continuing Medical Education for physicians. These credits are also recognized as Physician’s Recognition Award (AMA PRA Category 1 credits) by the American Medical Association. He was certified, by the United Nations for Basic Notion of Security on the Ground-Protection, Health and behavior, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)/World Health Organization, Lyon (France) for Safety Certificate. He has published 1 Book with a style of philosophical story. Author of the world program against cancer in low and middle incomes countries, he is lead author (first listed) of more than 90 peer-reviewed research articles published in reputed journals. He is Review Board Member of Acta Scientific Medical Sciences (ASMS), Acta Scientific Microbiology (ASMI), Research and Reviews on Healthcare: Open Access Journal (RRHOAJ), and Editorial Board Member of the Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (JMMS), Modern Journal of Medicine and Biology (MJMB), EC Microbiology, International Journal of Clinical Virology (IJCV), Acta Scientific Cancer Biology (ASCB), BioMed Research Journal (BMRJ), Journal of Medicine and Biology (JMB), Biomedical Research, International journal of vaccines and technologies (IJVT), Journal of Surgery, Operative Techniques and Anaesthesia (JSOTA), Current Research in Bioengineering & Biomedical Sciences (CRBBS), Journal of Women's Health, Gynecology & Obstetrics (JWHGO), Trauma & Emergency Care journal, Journal of Current Medical Research and Opinion (JCMRO), International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapy (IJCPP), Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (JCMID), Journal of Retro Virology and Anti Retro Virology (JRVAV), Journal of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals, Research and Reports in Immunology (RRI), Journal of Medical Case Reports and Reviews (JMCRR), Pyrex Journal of Biomedical Research (PJBR), Advances in Immunology and Microbiology (ADIM), Current Scientific Research in Biomedical Sciences (CSRBS), Journal of Clinical & Experimental Immunology (JCEI), Journal of AIDS and HIV Treatment, Edelweiss Journal of AIDS, Journal of HIV and AIDS, Journal of HIV and AIDS Research, Associate Editors for Journal of Bacteriology & Mycology: Open Access (JBMOA), Pediatrics & Neonatal Biology Open Access (PNBOA). Immune & Autoimmune Disorders Journal (IADJ), Annals of Advanced Biomedical Sciences (AABSc) and associate membership of the World Society for Virology, and also, member of BCNet International Working Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)/World Health Organization (WHO).
Dr MBAYE has formed for free, more than 250 healthcare professionals for the techniques of cervical cancer screening in Senegal. He has appeared on local media, 2S TV, Mbour TV and Leeral.net.
Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in Senegal. However, there are few data concerning the HPV types inducing neoplasia and cervical cancers and their prevalence, in the general population of Senegal
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HPV infection in Senegalese women aged from 18 years and older.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A study was performed on 498 cervix samples collected from healthy women aged 18 and older in Dakar. 438 other samples were collected from three other regions, Thiès, Saint Louis and Louga. The samples were screened for 21 HPV genotypes using an HPV type-specific E7 PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping assay (TS-MPG) which is a laboratory-developed method for the detection of HPV.
The prevalence for pHR/HR-HPV in the region of Dakar was 20.68%. HPV 52 (3.21%) was the most prevalent HPV type, followed by HPV 16 (3.01%) and HPV 31 (3.01%). In the regions of Thiès, Louga and Saint Louis, the prevalence for pHR/HR-HPV was 29.19%, 23.15% and 20%, respectively
The study revealed the specificity of the HR-HPV prevalence in Dakar and other regions of Senegal. The patterns differ from the one observed in the other regions of the world and rise the issue of the development of vaccination program in the country. Such a program should take into account the real HPV prevalence for an effective protection of HPV-associated diseases.
American International University, Bangladesh
Professor Hamida Khanum Ph. D, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. M. Sc. Specialization in Parasitology. Awarded and Obtained Ph. D. in 1975, in the field of Zoology (Fish Parasitology), University of Dhaka. Dhaka, Teaching MPH courses, and supervised 50 thesis students of MPH in American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB), Bosumdhara, Dhaka..
Total 260 Scientific research papers on human and animal Parasitology have been published in National and International recognized journals including 2 Books. About 23 Popular Articles on Dibabilities of children have been published in different National and International Proceedings and Brochure. A total of 25 NGOs, Ministries and Educational Organizations including SPACE. Zoological Society of India (W.B. FELLOW MEMBER), Life member-Indian Academy of Environmental Sciences.
The hospital- acquired infections are among major causes of death and increased morbidity in developed and developing countries resulting to significant burden both for patients as well as public health. Drug resistance is an emerging issue in modern health care. Through this study it was targeted to evaluate, which of the major agents is responsible for infections in the different areas of the body, and which age group and gender are most affected. In 2019, a cross sectional study was carried out among 121 respondents (patients admitted in Cardiac Surgery Department in United Hospital Dhaka, Bangladesh) to assess microbial infections among the admitted patients. The present study was targeted to evaluate, which of the major agents is responsible for infections in the different areas of the body, and which age group and gender are most affected. The study results shows 33.1% aged 61-70 years. 50.4% of normal body weight. Multidrug resistance was found in 3 out of 4 type of organisms. Namely Candida. Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and E coli. The only significant correlation was found between advancement of age with growth of Klebsiella. Microbial infections and their antimicrobial sensitivity profile were assessed by frequency and significance level of p value <0.05 was used for statistical analysis (considered as significance), unless specifically mentioned. the 2nd and 3rd generation Cephalosporin was resistant in 100% of Klebsiella and Pseudomonas positive culture. The only significant correlation was found between advancement of age with growth of Klebsiella. The study found that alarming rate of multidrug resistance present in the organism found in various culture media. This may potentially be useful for future protocol generation and safety measurement applied to patient admitted in cardiac surgery department. All data were analysed using SPSS software versions of 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA.
Case Western Reserve University, USA
Dr. Param Ramakrishnan has completed his PhD from Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel and postdoctoral studies from California Institute of Technology, USA under the mentoring of Nobel Laureate Dr. David Baltimore. Currently, he is a tenure track assistant professor, at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland Ohio, with secondary appointment at Cleveland Clinic Foundation. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals, hold 12 international patents and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute in 7 international journals.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease associated with hyperglycemia and chronic inflammation that leads to several secondary complications. We found that hyperglycemia induces O-GlcNAcylation the NF-kappaB protein c-Rel at a single serine residue, S350. c-Rel plays a critical role in controlling regulating T cell function and T regulatory cell development. O- GlcNAcylation of c-Rel at S350 enhances the transcription of c-Rel-induced CD28RE- dependent pro-autoimmune cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFNG) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We also found that the regulatory effect of c-Rel O-GlcNAcylation is gene dependent and it suppresses the transcription of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) expression in T cells. Together, these data suggest that c-Rel O- GlcNAcylation has a novel, dual regulatory role in controlling T cell function by enhancing pro- autoimmune T cell function and suppressing Treg function. This creates an immune environment that may exacerbate the progress of autoimmunity. Mechanistically, we found that O-GlcNAcylation enhances the DNA binding of c-Rel at CD28RE and decreases it’s binding at the FOXP3 promoter. This study reveals a novel molecular mechanism that regulates NF- kappaB c-Rel and autoimmune diabetes, with potential to develop novel therapeutics targeting c-Rel O-GlcNAcylation. Moreover, this study serves as the basis to explore the role of c-Rel O- GlcNAcylation in other autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease, lupus and arthritis, where c-Rel function have been implicated.
Tashkent State Technical University, Uzbekistan
Interferons (IFNs) are a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in the body's natural defensive responses to such foreign substances as microbes, tumors, and antigens. IFNs represent a group of compounds which can be divided into three main sub-groups: Type I, Type II, Type III (1,2). Type I IFNs mainly consist of IFNα and IFNβ subtypes, IFNγ is the sole member of the type II interferon class, whereas Type III predominantly comprises IFNλ1, IFNλ2 and IFNλ3 (3, 4). Among the presented pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN)g, produced predominantly by natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT), is vital for both innate and adaptive immunity by activating macrophages, natural killer cells, B cells and vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Simultaneously, IFNg plays a crucial role in the onset and development of a number of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, and regulates the functions and properties of all cell types present in the vessel wall(5).
On the other hand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the most abundant component within the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the release of many inflammatory cytokines in various cell types leading to an acute inflammatory response towards pathogens. Thus,together with IFNg, LPS can lead to expression of of CXCL10 gene in human microvascular epithelial cells. C–X–C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) also known as interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10) or small-inducible cytokine B10 is a cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family(6).
Our study indeed provides evidence that in HMECs IFNg and LPS together leads to expressions of STAT1-dependent genes that reflects a pro-atherogenic state in atherosclerosis.
Materials and Methods
Real-time PCR was used in order to analyze and compare the expression of cxcl10 gene. The expression level was compared with present RNA-seq data for each treatment condition. human microvascular epithelial cells were treated with murine IFNα murine IFNγ alone for 8 hours and IFN treatment was followed separately by treatment with LPS for additional 4 hours and at the end LPS alone for 4 hours to induce signal integration pathway between IFNs and TLRs. The expression levels were compared to reference genes Actb.
The difference between expression patterns was investigated and interactions of stimulating factors were considered in order to disclose the reason for the increasing responses of genes in VSMCs and MQs. As mentioned before, the signal integration between stimulating factors such as IFNγ and LPS interaction, induced the expression patterns of many genes included in this experiment. Cxcl10 showed the presence of binding site motifs which belongs to specific transcription factors like NFκB, ISRE and GAS. They are related to signal integration pathways and play a fundamental role in the pro-inflammatory process. With this reason, expression levels were increased with both stimuli together in comparison to treatment with compounds alone. Another important factor is STAT1 as a critical mediator of signal integration pathway. Genes which are induced by the presence of STAT1 protein, showed high levels of expression with the treatment combination of IFNs and LPS together. STAT1 dependent genes were showed significant patterns in VSMCs.
Graphs were made by using GraphPad Prism (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA).To evaluate this gene in further studies, bigger group of samples are needed with the different population profiles.
King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Saudi Arabia
Introduction: Regulatory T cells (CD4+ Tregs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of immunotolerance to alloantigens, which is accompanied by the removal of alloreactive T effector cells (Teffs), or by polarizing Teffs-Tregs ratio in favor of Tregs to suppress alloimmune inflammation and rescue allograft from microvascular associated injuries and progression of fibrosis during transplantation. Inflammation-induced and microvascular associated airway epithelial injuries are the key pathological source of graft malfunctioning and subepithelial fibrosis, which play a major role in the progression of chronic rejection. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic impact of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) on immunotolerance, in particular, the reparative microenvironment, which negate airway epithelial injury, and fibrosis during graft rejection.
Methods: Here, we depleted and reconstituted IL-10, and serially monitored the phase of immunotolerance, graft microvasculature, proinflammatory cytokines, airway epithelium, and subepithelial collagen in rejecting airway transplants.
Results: We demonstrated that the IL-10 depletion suppresses Tregs, Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 (TSG-6) protein, graft microvasculature, and establishes a pro-inflammatory phase, which favors airway epithelial injury and subepithelial collagen deposition while the IL-10 reconstitution induces Tregs, TSG-6 expression, graft microvasculature, and establishes an immunotolerance phase, which favors airway epithelial repair and subepithelial collagen suppression.
Conclusions: Collectively, these findings establish a potential reparative modulation of IL-10 associated immunotolerance on microvascular, epithelial, and fibrotic remodeling, which could provide a vital therapeutic option to rescue rejecting transplants in clinical settings.