Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Introduction: Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, as it accounts for 25% of the total cancers in women. The pursuit for a viral cause for human breast cancer has generated substantial disagreement. The aims of our study were to explore the presence of high – risk HPV type (16- 18) and HMLTV -DNA in breast tissue in a group of Iranian women with and without breast cancer. Material & method: Paraffin-embedded specimens from 65 cancerous breast cancer cases and 65 cases with benign breast lesions were examined for the presence of HPV and HMLTV -DNA by the nested polymerase chain reaction. Results: In our study all cancerous and non- cancerous breast samples were negative for the HMLTV –DNA, but HPV-6 was detected in 17 (26.2%) cases with breast cancer. This data is similar to reports that found no evidence of high-risk HPVs in breast cancer. Conclusion: The data presented in our study indicate a strong need for more epidemiological studies correlating different HPV types and HMLTV in Iranian women with breast cancer. Keywords: Human MMTV-Env like sequences, Breast cancer, Human papillomavirus.
Adriana Rodríguez Cruz burned in Mexico, 1989. Awarded bachelor's degree in Biology with honors by Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 2012. Education abroad in 2010 at University of California Berkeley, U.S.A. Research internships in 2013 at University of Arizona, U.S.A., and in 2014 at Charité Universitäts Medizin Berlin, Germany. Currently studying PhD in Biomedical Sciences at UNAM with the project "Evaluation of the signaling pathway of macrophages CD3+ TCRαβ+/TCRαβ- and their function as pro-inflammatory macrophages"; to identify the mechanisms of activation and cellular function of these macrophages, as well as their implication in the physiopathology of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Background: It was reported that 5-15% of macrophages isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) express the TCRαβ receptor. Using monocyte derived macrophages (MDM), from healthy donors, and infected in vitro with BCG it was observed that the percentage of TCR+ macrophages increased in response to the infection (1). Preliminary results from our group, in mice, showed that after an intravenous BCG-infection there is an increase in the recruitment of two subpopulations of macrophages: CD11b+CD3+TCRαβ- and CD11b+CD3+TCRαβ+, at moment the characterization of these subpopulations has not been assessed. Methodology: PBMC were obtained from healthy donors, CD14+ cells were obtained through inmunomagnetic positive selection. After 7 days in culture MDM were obtained and characterized by flow cytometry. The MDM CD3+ TCRαβ+ and TCRαβ- subpopulations were evaluated for the coexpression of: CD80, CD86, CD11B, CD68, CD14, CD3, TCRαβ, TCRϒδ, HLA-I, HLA-II, CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, CCR4, CCR7, CXCR1, CD16, and tmTNF. Findings: Our data shows that both of these subpopulations express efficiently the HLA-I, HLA-II. Moreover, the subpopulation CD3+TCRαβ+ showed an increase in the expression of CD1a, CD1b, CD1c and CD1d molecules, however in CD3+TCRαβ- this expression was absent. The expression of pro-inflammatory molecules CD16 and tmTNF had a stronger augment in the CD3+TCRαβ+ subpopulation. Chemokine receptors were measured and CCR4, CCR7 and CXCR1 were expressed 3 times more in CD3+TCRαβ+ compared to CD3+TCRαβ-. Conclusion: The CD3+TCRαβ+ MDM are efficient cells to present peptide antigens, however the expression of CD1 family molecules suggests that CD3+TCRαβ+ could play an important role in the presentation of lipid antigens. Probably, overexpression of pro-inflammatory molecules and chemokines receptors on CD3+TCRαβ+ is used by the MDM to favor a pro-inflammatory function. The phenotypic characterization of CD3+TCRαβ+ provides evidence that this subpopulation could be crucial in pathologies where lipids and inflammatory environment trigger a signal, such as tuberculosis.